There were large changes in OMI NO2 levels over the Middle East from 2005 to 2016. Large increases, such as over the Nile River Valley and Delta (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran), may reflect energy usage increases associated with a growing population. Large increases also occurred over the Persian Gulf and the oil fields of Iraq. Civil strife in the region led to large decreases over Syria and increases in neighboring countries, such as Lebanon and southern Turkey, where many Syrians migrated. Large decreases over Dubai (United Arab Emirates) resulted from environmental regulations on NOx emissions.