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Middle East

There were large changes in OMI NO2 levels over the Middle East from 2005 to 2016.  Large increases, such as over the Nile River Valley and Delta (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran), may reflect energy usage increases associated with a growing population.  Large increases also occurred over the Persian Gulf and the oil fields of Iraq.  Civil strife in the region led to large decreases over Syria and increases in neighboring countries, such as Lebanon and southern Turkey, where many Syrians migrated.  Large decreases over Dubai (United Arab Emirates) resulted from environmental regulations on NOx emissions.    

Middle East Regional Changes in NO2, 2005-2016

Image Credit: 
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

The trend map of the Middle East shows the change in nitrogen dioxide concentrations from 2005 to 2016.

Data Colorbar

Regional Data

Select from the cities below to find data and plots specific to each location. To sort, simply click on one of the column headings.

Region: Middle East
City Country Region 2016 Avg. NO2 Change (%) Uncertainty (±%)
Kabul Afghanistan Middle East 1.39 53.62 11.66
Gaziantep Turkey Middle East 1.41 60.17 11.95
Kirkuk Iraq Middle East 1.68 55.34 14.42
Alexandria Egypt Middle East 1.85 21.06 9.96
Mosul Iraq Middle East 1.89 36.30 13.92
Homs Syria Middle East 2.02 2.49 9.72
Aleppo Syria Middle East 2.35 -47.17 12.23
Damascus Syria Middle East 2.93 -40.68 9.78
Jerusalem Israel Middle East 3.06 -14.16 8.24
Beirut Lebanon Middle East 3.50 95.68 15.59
Mecca Saudi Arabia Middle East 3.76 15.28 10.57
Baghdad Iraq Middle East 3.85 60.95 11.02
Ankara Turkey Middle East 4.56 -9.16 12.96
Cairo Egypt Middle East 4.85 12.35 8.91
Kuwait City Kuwait Middle East 5.85 8.83 7.87
Istanbul Turkey Middle East 5.96 -14.28 14.31
Riyadh Saudi Arabia Middle East 9.45 -3.12 10.23
Tehran Iran Middle East 11.37 14.02 18.39