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North America

Environmental regulations on NOx emissions from automobiles and power plants in the United States led to a reduction in NO2 levels between 20 and 40% over American cities from 2005 to 2016.  In fact, the only significant increases over the U.S. occurred over areas of intensive oil and natural gas extraction in western North Dakota and western Texas, indicating an increase in activities and, subsequently, NOx emissions from flaring of natural gas and the heavy machinery used to extract the oil and natural gas.  Significant decreases in Mexico occurred over Mazatlan and Guadalajara (−15-−20%) with insignificant changes over other cities.  Mexico City had considerable spatial heterogeneity in the changes in NO2 levels, with large increases to the west and north of the city center and large decreases in the city center and to the northeast.

US Regional Decreases in NO2, 2005-2016

Image Credit: 
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

The trend map of the United States shows the large decreases in nitrogen dioxide concentrations from 2005 to 2016. Only decreases are highlighted in this map.

Data Colorbar

Texas Regional Changes in NO2, 2005-2016

Image Credit: 
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

The trend map for Texas shows the percent change in nitrogen dioxide concentrations from 2005 to 2016.

North Dakota Regional Changes in NO2, 2005-2016

Image Credit: 
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

The trend map for North Dakota shows the percent change in nitrogen dioxide concentrations from 2005 to 2016.

Data Colorbar

NPP VIIRS Lights at Night

The NPP VIIRS Lights at Night show bright lights (circled) co-located with the increases in NO2 levels over three areas of oil and natural gas extraction activities in western Texas and western North Dakota.

Regional Data

Select from the cities below to find data and plots specific to each location. To sort, simply click on one of the column headings.

Region: North America
City Country Region 2016 Avg. NO2 Change (%) Uncertainty (±%)
Mexico City Mexico North America 2.97 -3.96 15.02
Veracruz Mexico North America 1.07 4.46 10.91
Guadalajara Mexico North America 3.37 -29.64 7.10
Monterrey Mexico North America 4.93 -10.69 10.70
Chihuahua Mexico North America 1.35 -3.43 8.73
Mazatlan Mexico North America 0.87 -8.63 9.76
Toronto Canada North America 9.17 -31.29 11.62
New York United States North America 15.74 -49.55 7.37
Los Angeles United States North America 17.46 -63.27 5.46
Chicago United States North America 11.42 -47.49 9.63
Dallas Fort Worth United States North America 4.63 -40.25 6.53
San Francisco / San Jose United States North America 4.33 -46.94 10.15
Miami United States North America 3.02 -36.70 8.08
Philadelphia United States North America 9.78 -49.99 7.36
Houston United States North America 5.80 -40.60 7.39
Atlanta United States North America 6.62 -56.35 7.08
Washington D.C. United States North America 8.62 -49.50 6.96
Boston United States North America 6.29 -43.19 9.54
Phoenix Mesa United States North America 6.32 -62.30 6.70
Detroit United States North America 8.62 -46.22 9.25